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What does the Calvin cycle use to produce high energy sugars

10. What does the Calvin cycle use to produce high-energy sugars? CO2 and ATP and NADPH (from the light-dependent reactions). 11

The Calvin cycle uses ATP and NAPDH from light-dependent reactions to produce high-energy sugars

The Calvin cycle is another name for A photosynthesis B

what does the Calvin Cycle use to produce high-energy sugars? Rubisco. The most abundant protein on earth. Performs Carbon Fixation in the Calvin Cycle. Regenerated from G3P and the use of ATP. G3P. 2 of these molecules are used to create 1 Glucose molecule in the Calvin Cycle. CO2. Molecule entering the calvin cycle. Becomes fixed in order. what does the calvin cycle use to produce high energy sugars. the calvin cycle uses ATP and NADPH to produce high energy sugars. why are the reactions of calvin cycle also called the light independent reations. they are called a light independent reactions because it does not require light to work 12. Carbon dioxide is used to make sugars in the light-independentreactions. 13. The light-independent reactions are also called the Calvin cycle. 14. ATP synthase spins to provide the energy for adding a phosphate group to ADP. 15. Electron transport chains move high-energy electrons between photosystems What does the calvin cycle use to produce high-energy sugars? ATP and NADPH. Why are the reactions of the Calvin cycle also called the light independent reactions? The Calvin cycle use six molecules of carbon dioxide to produce a single 6 carbon sugar molecule. true The Calvin cycle is the term used for the reactions of photosynthesis that use the energy stored by the light-dependent reactions to form glucose and other carbohydrate molecules. The Interworkings of the Calvin Cycle Figure 1. Light-dependent reactions harness energy from the sun to produce ATP and NADPH

This stage obtains energy from ATP and NADPH formed during the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis. In this way, Calvin cycle becomes a pathway in which plants convert sunlight energy into long-term storage molecules, such as sugars. The energy from the ATP and NADPH is transferred to the sugars It uses ATP and NADPH from the Light-Dependent reactions to produce high-energy sugars. what is the first step in the Calvin cycle? Carbon fixation. Captures CO2 from the atmosphere so it can be used in reactions. What does the calvin cycle return to light reactions? ADP, inorganic phosphate, and NADP+ to light reactions The Calvin Cycle uses ATP and NADPH from light-dependent reactions to produce high-energy sugars. What is produced by the Calvin cycle? The Calvin cycle uses ATP and NADPH from the light-dependent..

In the Calvin cycle, carbon atoms from are fixed (incorporated into organic molecules) and used to build three-carbon sugars. This process is fueled by, and dependent on, ATP and NADPH from the light reactions. Unlike the light reactions, which take place in the thylakoid membrane, the reactions of the Calvin cycle take place in the stroma (the. The Calvin cycle uses the reducing powers ATP and NADPH from the light dependent reactions to produce sugars for the plant to use. These substrates are used in a series of reduction-oxidation reactions to produce sugars in a step-wise process. There is no direct reaction that converts CO 2 to a sugar because all of the energy would be lost to heat QUESTION 14 The purpose of the Calvin Cycle is to: a. Use ATP and high-energy electrons (stored in energy carriers) to form sugars from CO2

The Calvin Cycle(pages 212-213) 14. What does the Calvin cycle use to produce high-energy sugars? The Calvin cycle uses ATP and NADPH from the light-dependent reactions to produce high-energy sugars. 15. Why are the reactions of the Calvin cycle also called the light-independent reactions? The Calvin cycle does not require light. 16 The function of the Calvin cycle is to create three-carbon sugars, which can then be used to build other sugars such as glucose, starch, and cellulose that is used by plants as a structural building material. The Calvin cycle takes molecules of carbon straight out of the air and turns them into plant matter The Calvin cycle uses ATP and NADPH from the light-dependent reactions to produce high-energy sugars. The Calvin cycle is named after the American Scientist, Melvin Calvin, who worked out the details of this remarkable cycle. Because the Calvin Cycle does not require light, these reaction are also called light-independent reactions The Calvin Cycle (pages 212-213) 14. What does the Calvin cycle use to produce high-energy sugars? The Calvin cycle uses ATP and NADPH from the light-dependent reactions to produce high-energy sugars. 15. Why are the reactions of the Calvin cycle also called the light- independent reactions? The Calvin cycle does not require light. 16 the Calvin cycle uses _____ and _____ from the light-dependent reactions. fix carbon dioxide and produce three-carbon sugars. where do the Calvin cycle use ATP and NADPH. glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, or G3P molecules These electrons become high energy electrons. Within the chloroplasts are electron acceptors

The Calvin cycle uses the energy in ATP and NADPH to produce high-energy sugars. Circle the places where ATP and NADPH are used. Then, draw an X over the 6-carbon high-energy sugar produced by the Calvin cycle. Use the diagram to answer the question.1 The Calvin cycle is the term used for the reactions of photosynthesis that use the energy stored by the light-dependent reactions to form glucose and other carbohydrate molecules ( Figure 1 ). Figure 1 The light-dependent reactions harness energy from the sun to produce ATP and NADPH. These energy-carrying molecules travel into the stroma where.

What does the Calvin cycle use to produce high energy

The Calvin Cycle. In plants, carbon dioxide (CO 2) enters the leaves through stomata, where it diffuses over short distances through intercellular spaces until it reaches the mesophyll cells.Once in the mesophyll cells, CO 2 diffuses into the stroma of the chloroplast, the site of light-independent reactions of photosynthesis. These reactions actually have several names associated with them the Calvin Cycle (a.k.a. the light-independent or dark reactions) During which stage of photosynthesis is oxygen produced?, light-dependent reactions: During which stage of photosynthesis is the energy from ATP and NADPH used to produce high energy sugars?, the Calvin Cycle (a.k.a. the light-independent or dark reactions

The Calvin cycle is the principal mechanism that leads to the conversion of carbon dioxide into sugars by plants, algae, photosynthetic bacteria, and certain other bacteria that use chemicals as an energy source instead of light. The Calvin cycle, also known as the Calvin Benson cycle, is an integral part of the process of photosynthesis in plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria Summary of the Calvin Cycle . Since six carbon atoms make a glucose molecule, it requires six turns of the Calvin cycle to produce one glucose molecule and three rounds to form a molecule of G3P. One molecule of G3P contains three fixed carbon atoms, so two G3P molecules are needed to form a glucose molecule Attaches phosphate molecule to ADP ATP LIGHT-INDEPENDENT REACTIONS ATP and NADPH can only store the chemical energy for a few minutes The Calvin Cycle uses the energy from ATP & NADPH to make high-energy compounds that can store the energy longer (sugars) Light independent reaction = does NOT require light Calvin Cycle - name given to the. Glucose is a simple six-carbon sugar. Plants synthesize glucose from carbon dioxide and water as an end product of photosynthesis, the process that harnesses sunlight for the plant to use as energy. The central series of chemical reactions involved is called the Calvin-Benson cycle. It produces three-carbon sugars called glyceraldehyde 3.

In the Calvin cycle, which takes place in the stroma, the chemical energy derived from the light-dependent reactions drives both the capture of carbon in carbon dioxide molecules and the subsequent assembly of sugar molecules. The two reactions use carrier molecules to transport the energy from one to the other The Calvin Cycle uses ATP and NADPH to produce high-energy sugars. taffy927x2 and 4 more users found this answer helpful. heart outlined. Thanks 3. star. star. star. star. star The Calvin cycle is a process that plants and algae use to turn carbon dioxide from the air into sugar, the food autotrophs need to grow. Every living thing on Earth depends on the Calvin cycle. Plants depend on the Calvin cycle for energy and food.Other organisms, including herbivores, also depend on it indirectly because they depend on plants for food In this way, Calvin cycle becomes a pathway in which plants convert sunlight energy into long-term storage molecules, such as sugars. The energy from the ATP and NADPH is transferred to the sugars. This step is known as reduction since electrons are transferred to 3-PGA molecules to form glyceraldehyde-3 phosphate Question: QUESTION 14 The Purpose Of The Calvin Cycle Is To: A. Use ATP And High-energy Electrons (stored In Energy Carriers) To Form Sugars From CO2. B. Generate NADH And ATP Through Catabolic Reactions. C. Use NADH And ATP To Form Sugars From Glucose. D. Generate CO2 That Will Later Be Used To Form Sugar

Video: What does the Calvin cycle use to produce high- energy

plants use ATP and NADPH from the light dependent reactions to produce high energy sugars (energy) that can be stored for a long time What reactions make up the Calvin cycle? CO2 enters the cycle, energy is converted into high energy forms, the remaining 3-carbon molecules are converted back into 5 carbon molecules to be used in the next cycle. The Calvin cycle uses ATP and NADPH to produce high-energy sugars. The Calvin cycle uses ATP and NADPH to produce high-energy sugars. The process of photosynthesis includes the light-dependent reactions as well as the Calvin cycle. Chapter 6 - Photosynthesis 1. The Light Reactions• Almost all of the energy in living systems comes from the su

The Calvin cycle is the second part of the photosynthesis reaction. Photosynthesis stores energy from the sun and carbon from the air together in the high-energy molecule, glucose. Like any factory the Calvin cycle needs energy to create glucose. Where does this energy come from? Rubisco makes up about 15% of the total protein in a chloroplast D) ATP and NADPH produce high energy sugars. 16. TYPE ALL THE OPTIONS THAT ARE TRUE about the CALVIN CYCLE A) ATP is produced by ATP synthase and oxygen is released B) It is also called the light-independent reaction. C) ATP and NADPH from the light-dependent reactions are used here D) High energy sugar compounds are made from CO2 17 The Calvin Cycle Click on any part of the diagram for more detail. Plants use energy from the sun in tiny energy factories called chloroplasts.Using chlorophyll in the process of photosynthesis, they convert the sun's energy into storable form in ordered sugar molecules such as glucose.In this way, carbon dioxide from the air and water from the soil in a more disordered state are combined to. In this article we will discuss about:- 1. Meaning of Calvin Cycle 2. Features of Calvin Cycle 3. Enzymes. Meaning of Calvin Cycle: Like the photosynthetic reactions which are driven by the light energy the reactions which joint hydrogen and CO 2 to produce carbohydrate also require energy and the main source of this energy is the assimilatory power (ATP + NADPH 2) regenerated in photolysis

Calvin Cycle Flashcards Quizle

For each carbon atom that is released from the Calvin cycle in a high-energy carbohydrate molecule, one carbon dioxide molecule must enter the cycle. To produce one molecule of PGAL (which contains 3 carbon atoms), 3 molecules of carbon dioxide must enter the cycle; to produce one molecule of glucose (with 6 carbon atoms), 6 molecules of carbon. The products of the light dependent reaction are used to power the Calvin cycle to produce glucose. When photons strike photosystem (PS) II, pigments pass the light energy to chlorophyll molecules that in turn excite electrons, which are then passed to the electron transport chain The Calvin Cycle, also known as the Calvin-Benson Cycle, refers to the set of light independent redox reactions that takes place in the chloroplasts during photosynthesis and carbon fixation that would convert carbon dioxide into the sugar glucose.Furthermore, the cycle also refers to the reactions involved in photosynthesis that use the energy that is stored by the light-dependent reactions. Here, the Calvin cycle can take off, using carbon dioxide from the air to create sugars. This is the 'synthesis' part of 'photosynthesis,' where the plants will finish cooking up some food with. The Calvin cycle has three main stages: carbon fixation, reduction, and regeneration. In carbon fixation, carbon dioxide is combined with a 5-carbon sugar [ribulose1,5-biphosphate (RuBP)] creating a 6-carbon sugar. In the reduction stage, ATP and NADPH produced in the light reaction stage are used to convert the 6-carbon sugar into two.

8PPT - Photo synthesis (Chapter 8) PowerPoint Presentation

These guys use solar energy but they don't evolve oxygen. And we'll get into how that works. And then there's a group of organisms that still use CO2. And in the very similar pathway the Calvin Cycle is photosynthesis. But they use chemical energy in order to make these intermediates to fix CO2 The Calvin cycle occurs at any time of the day, while the light dependent reactions require light. The calvin cycle produces glucose, while the light dependent reactions produce oxygen, ATP, and. A.More sugars will be produced. B. No sugar will be produced.*** C. The same number of sugars will be produced but without carbon dioxide. D.Fewer sugar will be produced at first,but then the plant will recover. How does the Calvin cycle differ from the light-dependent reactions. A.It takes place in the stroma.*** B.It takes place in chloroplasts The energy used to produce ATP in the light reactions of photosynthesis comes from _____. movement of H+ through a membrane What is the role of NADP+ in photosynthesis? It is reduced and then carries electrons to the Calvin cycle. Light reactions do all of the following except _____. convert sunlight to chemical energy synthesize ATP and NADPH reduce CO2 convey excited electrons from. The Calvin cycle reactions (Figure 5.15) can be organized into three basic stages: fixation, reduction, and regeneration.In the stroma, in addition to CO 2, two other chemicals are present to initiate the Calvin cycle: an enzyme abbreviated RuBisCO, and the molecule ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP).RuBP has five atoms of carbon and a phosphate group on each end

Biology Flashcards Quizle

  1. g 6 NADPH and 9 ATP; 2 molecules of G3P combine to make 1 molecule of glucose; The products of the Calvin cycle are exported from the chloroplast to provide energy for cellular respiration, and organic carbon for biosynthetic pathways to construct all the building blocks for cellular molecules
  2. One of the G3P molecules leaves the Calvin cycle to contribute to the formation of the carbohydrate molecule, which is commonly glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6). Because the carbohydrate molecule has six carbon atoms, it takes six turns of the Calvin cycle to make one carbohydrate molecule (one for each carbon dioxide molecule fixed)
  3. The Calvin cycle is used extensively by plants and photoautotrophic bacteria, and the enzyme RuBisCO is said to be the most plentiful enzyme on earth, composing 30%-50% of the total soluble protein in plant chloroplasts. 1 However, besides its prevalent use in photoautotrophs, the Calvin cycle is also used by many nonphotosynthetic.
  4. It involves producing a three-carbon compound called 3-phosphoglyceric acid during the Calvin Cycle, which goes on to become glucose. C4 photosynthesis, on the other hand, produces a four-carbon intermediate compound, which splits into carbon dioxide and a three-carbon compound during the Calvin Cycle. A benefit of C4 photosynthesis is that by.

Photosynthesis biology Flashcards Quizle

NADPH then delivers high-energy electrons to the Calvin Cycle for long-term energy storage in the form of sugar (Figure 7). Figure 7: Photosynthesis proteins embedded in a thylakoid membrane deliver high energy electrons to the Calvin Cycle and send hydrogen ions into the lumen to generate a proton gradient Fermentation does not generate any additional energy, however, NAD+ is regenerated. In the presence of oxygen, pyruvate is oxidized and acetyl CoA is formed, which feeds into the citrate acid cycle and the complete oxidation of glucose. The citric acid cycle begins when acetyl CoA combines with oxaloacetate to generate citric acid Where does the carbon come from? The carbon atoms used to build carbohydrate molecules comes from carbon dioxide, the gas that animals exhale with each breath. The Calvin cycle is the term used for the reactions of photosynthesis that use the energy stored by the light-dependent reactions to form glucose and other carbohydrate molecules

The Calvin Cycle Biology I - Lumen Learnin

28 Questions Show answers. Q. When carbon first enters the Calvin cycle, what molecule does it combine with? Q. Which substance from the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis is a source of energy for the light-independent reactions? Q. To bring in nonliving carbon (CO2) and use it to make organic compounds is a process calle Calvin cycle. Six carbon dioxide molecules from the atmosphere enter the Calvin cycle and combine with 5-carbon compounds already present. They produce twelve 3-carbon molecules. Two 3-carbon molecules are removed from the cycle. They are used by the plant to build sugars, lipids, amino acids, and other compounds

An Overview of Calvin Cycle - Stages Of C3 Cycl

The Calvin cycle. Video transcript. in the last video we learned a little bit about both photosynthesis it and we know in very general terms it's the process where we start off with photons and water and carbon dioxide and we use that energy and the photons to fix the carbon and now there's this idea of carbon fixation is essentially taking. The Light-Dependent Reactions Photosynthesis takes place in two stages: the light-dependent reactions and the Calvin cycle. In the light-dependent reactions, which take place at the thylakoid membrane, chlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlight and then converts it into chemical energy with the use of water.The light-dependent reactions release oxygen as a byproduct as water is broken apart

chapter 8 learning outcomes Flashcards Quizle

Photorespiration (also known as the oxidative photosynthetic carbon cycle, or C 2 photosynthesis) refers to a process in plant metabolism where the enzyme RuBisCO oxygenates RuBP, wasting some of the energy produced by photosynthesis.The desired reaction is the addition of carbon dioxide to RuBP (carboxylation), a key step in the Calvin-Benson cycle, but approximately 25% of reactions by. During photosynthesis, energy from sunlight is harvested and used to drive the synthesis of glucose from CO2 and H2O. By converting the energy of sunlight to a usable form of potential chemical energy, photosynthesis is the ultimate source of metabolic energy for all biological systems. Photosynthesis takes place in two distinct stages. In the light reactions, energy from sunlight drives the. The Calvin cycle, or the light-independent (dark) reactions of photosythesis. state it helps drive a reaction and of course ATP's when they lose their phosphate groups those electrons in a very high energy state they enter a lower energy State help drive a reaction help put energy into reaction so then we have these 12 P gals now the reason. In stage 3, RuBP, the molecule that starts the cycle, is regenerated so that the cycle can continue. Only one carbon dioxide molecule is incorporated at a time, so the cycle must be completed three times to produce a single three-carbon G3P molecule, and six times to produce a six-carbon glucose molecule Glucose and some glycolytic metabolites (such as glycerol) also serve as osmolytes i.e. they maintain osmotic pressure in the cell. Basically, points 4-7 convey that Calvin-Benson cycle not only produces sugar but what it actually does is fix inorganic carbon (as CO 2) to organic form (in the form of sugar). So, most (practically all) of the.

What does the Calvin cycle use to produce high-energy

  1. The Calvin Cycle. In the Calvin cycle, ATP and NADPH are used to reduce, or fix, carbon dioxide to produce glucose. This carbon fixation reaction is catalyzed by an enzyme called RUBISCO, a highly abundant protein in plants and possibly the most abundant protein on Earth
  2. Dark reactions make use of these organic energy molecules (ATP and NADPH). This response cycle is also called Calvin Benison Cycle, and it occurs in the stroma. ATP provides the energy while NADPH provides the electrons required to fix the CO2(carbon dioxide) into carbohydrates
  3. Plants use up the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate during cellular respiration to form glucose and other carbohydrate sources. Glucose being a 6-C compound, requires two G3P molecules to produce one glucose molecule. Regeneration. It is the last stage of the Calvin cycle, which involves the regeneration of RuBP or allows the cycle to continue. Six.
  4. Overview: The Calvin Cycle consists of reactions that are light-independent; in other words, they may occur in the absence of light. Also called the C3 cycle, these reactions operate by using the NADPH and ATP produced in the light reactions. The three major stages of the cycle are as follows: The carbon fixation reactions, the reductionr reactions, and the regeneration of RuBP
  5. The photosynthetic efficiency is the fraction of light energy converted into chemical energy during photosynthesis in green plants and algae. Photosynthesis can be described by the simplified chemical reaction 6 H 2 O + 6 CO 2 + energy → C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2. where C 6 H 12 O 6 is glucose (which is subsequently transformed into other sugars, cellulose, lignin, and so forth)

The Calvin cycle (article) Photosynthesis Khan Academ

  1. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is an organic compound and hydrotrope that provides energy to drive many processes in living cells, such as muscle contraction, nerve impulse propagation, condensate dissolution, and chemical synthesis. Found in all known forms of life, ATP is often referred to as the molecular unit of currency of intracellular energy transfer
  2. Plants use the energy that ATP and NADPH contain to build high-energy compounds that can be stored for a long time. Uses ATP and NADPH from the light dependent reactions to produce high-energy sugars
  3. The Calvin cycle is a process that plants and algae use to turn carbon dioxide from the air into sugar, the food autotrophs need to grow. Every living thing on Earth depends on the Calvin cycle. Plants depend on the Calvin cycle for energy and food. Other organisms, including herbivores, like deer, depend on it indirectly

Calvin cycle - Wikipedi

Solved: QUESTION 14 The Purpose Of The Calvin Cycle Is To

Calvin Cycle: Definition, Function, Steps & Products

Calvin cycle supplies the light reactions with sugars to produce ATP. D) The light reactions provide the Calvin cycle with oxygen for electron flow, and the Calvin cycle provides the light reactions with water to split. E) There is no relationship between the light reactions and the Calvin cycle. Answer: A 4 Calvin Cycle -uses ATP and NADPH from the light-dependent reactions to produce high-energy sugars ChloropIast CO 2 Enters the Cycle Energy Input 5-Carbon Molecules Regenerated Sugars and other compounds 6-Carbon Sugar Produced. NOTEBOOK #5 1. What two reactions are included in photosynthesis? 2 6. How many turns of the Calvin Cycle does it take to produce 1 Glucose molecule? 7. Write the formula for Photosynthesis and explain when and why water is used and when and why CO2 is used. Calvin Cycle Follow up questions. Directions: Each person must answer these questions on a separate sheet of paper. Use complete sentences. 1 Metabolic pathways both produce and use energy to perform their reactions. How does the Calvin cycle help to harness, store, and use energy in its pathway? a. The Calvin cycle harnesses energy in the form of 6 ATP and 6 NADPH that are used to produce Fructose- 3 - phosphate (F3P) molecules. These store the energy captured from photosynthesis

GENBIO1_WEEK2_SPECIALIZED

Light and Dark Reactions Flashcards Quizle

The soluble Calvin cycle enzymes, which are required for glucose synthesis during photosynthesis, are also found in plant cells. It is not possible to feed a plant by pouring a glucose solution on it, but water supplied to a plant will be photolysed by chloroplasts in the presence of light; the hydrogen(s) generated from H 2 O is used by. 8.1: Overview of Photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is essential to all life on earth; both plants and animals depend on it. It is the only biological process that can capture energy that originates in outer space (sunlight) and convert it into chemical compounds (carbohydrates) that every organism uses to power its metabolism Carbon fixation is the process by which inorganic carbon is added to an organic molecule. Carbon fixation occurs during the light independent reaction of photosynthesis and is the first step in. 1 test answers. Which of these equations best summarizes photosynthesis? 6 CO2 + 6 H2O > C6H12O6 + 6 O2. Where does the Calvin cycle occur? Stroma. The light reactions of photosynthesis use _____ and produce _____. water . NADPH. The photosynthetic membranes are found in the _____ in plant cells. chloroplasts

Use the diagram to answer the questions 1 Where does light

How many turns of the Calvin cycle will it take to make one molecule of glucose? c. Calculate the total number of ATP and NADPH molecules used in the production of one molecule of glucose. 26. Where do the ADP and NADP+ go after they are used in the Calvin cycle? 27 Production of stable, high energy sugars such as _____! THE PROCESS OCCURS IN THE STROMA!! Plants use the energy that _____ and _____ contain to build high-energy _____ that can be _____ for a long time. Uses ATP and NADPH from the light _____reactions to produce high-energy sugars that can be. The entire process summed up: Factors that affect. 146. The chloroplast is enclosed by a pair of envelope membranes (inner and outer) that separate the interior of the chloroplast from the surrounding cytosol of the cell. Inside the chloroplast, the chlorophyll-containing thylakoid membranes are the site of the light reactions. Study These Flashcards Art Connection. The Calvin cycle has three stages. In stage 1, the enzyme RuBisCO incorporates carbon dioxide into an organic molecule, 3-PGA. In stage 2, the organic molecule is reduced using electrons supplied by NADPH. In stage 3, RuBP, the molecule that starts the cycle, is regenerated so that the cycle can continue Q Why the C4 plants use the C3 pathway or the Calvin cycle as the main biosynthetic pathway C4 carbon fixation or the Hatch-Slack pathway is a photosynthe. It is the first step in extracting carbon from carbon dioxide to be able to use it in sugar and other biomolecules. It is one of three known processes for carbon fixation

Breaking down photosynthesis into light dependent reactions and Calvin cycle. If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website. If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked The Calvin cycle of photosynthesis produces glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) C3H7O6P > The sum of reactions in the Calvin cycle is the following: 3 CO2 + 6 NADPH + 6 H+ + 9 ATP → 1 glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) + 6 NADP+ + 9 ADP + 3 H2O + 8 Pi. Carbon fixation or сarbon assimilation is the process by which inorganic carbon (particularly in the form of carbon dioxide) is converted to organic compounds by living organisms. The compounds are then used to store energy and as structure for other biomolecules.Carbon is primarily fixed through photosynthesis, but some organisms use a process called chemosynthesis in the absence of sunlight C 4 plants can produce more sugar than C 3 plants in conditions of high light and temperature. Many important crop plants are C 4 plants, including maize, sorghum, sugarcane, and millet. Plants that do not use PEP-carboxylase in carbon fixation are called C3 plants because the primary carboxylation reaction, catalyzed by RuBisCO, produces the three-carbon 3-phosphoglyceric acids directly in. We can use our understanding of the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation to anticipate the processes required of photosynthesis. The citric acid cycle oxidizes carbon fuels to CO 2 to generate high-energy electrons, notably in the form of NADH. The flow of these high-energy electrons generates a proton-motive force through the action.